Bibliography

'Advice to the author from the Librarian of the Seeley Historical Library, Cambridge, in 1959.

2Samuel C. Forman (1995), The Existential Pleasures of Engineering, Souvenir Press, pp. 18-19, gives some of these definitions.

3Manfred Korfman, (October 1973), The Sling as a Weapon, Scientific American, vol. 229 pages 34-42.

"Hanson, N. R. (1958). Patterns of Discovery, Cambridge University Press, 14.

'Evans, F.T., (January 1981): Roads, Railways and Canals: Technical Choices in 19* Century Britain.

Technology and Culture, Vol. 22, pp. 26-34.

6W, Kingston, (1977), The Creative process in Human Progress, John Calder. Kingston offers valuable insights into the relationship between creative thinking and the process of innovation.

'Alan Smith, Engines Moved by Fire and Water, Transactions of the Newcomen Society. Vol. 66,1994 -1995,

ppl-25. A useful account of the work done by others, notably Denis Papin, on early steam power.

8Hobbes, T. Leviathan; John Locke, Treatises on Government; 3. J. Rousseau, Social Contract.

'I was guilty of whiggery as described in Professor Herbert Butterfield's book The Whig Interpretation of History (Cambridge University Press, 1931). The book criticises the tendency to judge past events from a later standpoint. In his words, 'What is discussed is the tendency of many historians to write on the side of Protestants and Whigs, to praise revolutions provided they have been successful, to emphasise certain principles of progress in the past and to produce a story which is the ratification if not the glorification of the present.' page v.

10Evans, F. T. 'The Maudslay Touch'. Transactions of the Newcomen Society. Vol. 66, 1994-1995, pp. 53-174.

"Roger Lewin: Bones of Contention. Penguin 1989

12Ingold, T., (1993), 'Tools, Techniques and Technology' in Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution, ed. K. R. Gibson and T. Ingold, Cambridge, pp 337-338.

13For a general background to the topic of tools and language Lewin and Gibson and Ingold (vide supra) give a valuable picture. An older but impressive work is A. Leroi Gourhan Le Geste et La Parole (1964), translated as Gesture and Speech, M.I.T. Press 1993. Another seminal work is the short Man the Toolmaker by Kenneth Oakey, London 1972.

"Yves Coppens. (1994 May). East Side Story: The Origin of Humankind. Scientific American, vol. 270, no.5: 62-69.

15Lovejoy, C. Owen. (1988 Nov.) Evolution of Human Walking, Scientific American, vol. 259, (5). ""Leakey R. and Lewin R. (1992): Origins Reconsidered, Little, Brown and Co., p. 90-91. offer an opposing view, that a bipedal chimp was faster.

17Dean Falk (1993). Sex Differences in visuospatial skills. In Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution, ed K.R.Gibson and T Ingold. Cambridge University Press. See also the BBC Horizon programme, Hothead, 1994.

"Jablonski, N. G. and Chaplin, G. (1994 Jan.): Avant les Premiers Pas: 1'origine de la bipedie, La Recherche, vol. 25, no. 261.

"Elaine Morgan. (1994). The Descent of the Child, Souvenir Press, London, pp!56-168 offers the most recent summary of the hypothesis. 20ibid. 38.

21Calvin, W. H. (1994 Oct.). The Emergence of Intelligence, Scientific American, vol. 271, no 4: pp 78-83. 22The irregular term thing using has been adopted because it is more direct than 'opportunistic tool using" and perhaps it will convey more of the importance of the activity. Alternatively homo opportunus may be more suitable, with its connotations of 'advantageous' and serviceable'. 23Gregory R. L. (1976). Eye and Brain, 2nd ed. pp. 50-59

24Cooper L. A. and Shepherd R. N. (1984 Dec.). Turning Something Over in the Mind, Scientific American, vol.251 no 6: 114-121. 25R. L. Gregory: op. cit. 26Cooper and Shepherd 1984, loc. cit.

"Brooke Hindle (1981) Emulation and Invention. New York University Press. Also see Eugene S. Ferguson: (1993) Engineering and the Mind's Eye. MIT Press, pp.41-59.

28K. Connolly and M. Dalgleish. 1989. The Emergence of a Tool-Using Skill in Infancy. Developmental Psychology, vol. 25, no. 6: 894-912.

29Henry Petroski (1985), To Engineer is Human, Macmillan, page 11.

30Calvin. 1994. He also makes the valuable point that trying out things mentally, comparing possible outcomes, has evolutionary value: he quotes Popper, that this permits our hypotheses to die in our stead. 31Schon D. A., (1967). Invention and the Evolution of Ideas. Tavistock Publications. 32Hopkins H. J., (1970): Span of Bridges, David and Charles. 33L. T. C. Roll (1965) Tools for the Job. Batsford. 34R. Dawkins. (1988). The Blind Watchmaker, Penguin Books, London. 35G. Barsalla, G. (1988). The Evolution of Technology, Cambridge, uses this metaphor. 36Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza: (1991 Nov.) Genes, Peoples and Languages. Scientific American pp. 72-78. 37J. Lyons, Chomsky, Fotana, 3rd edition, 1991. 38Jackendoff, R. (1993). Patterns in the Mind. Harvester, pp. 66-82.

39The universality of this basic linguistic form is described by Steven Pinker (1994), The language Instinct, William Morrow, pp. 232-237.

'"'It will be interesting, if the language of dolphins and whales is cracked, to see whether they have the same basic syntactical structures as human languages; if they do, then the thing using hypothesis is weakened. I am indebted to my wife for this, and many other suggestions. 4IJ. Lyon, op. cit. pp. 24-25.

42R. Wallace (1989). Cognitive Mapping and the Origin of Language and Mind, Current Anthropology, Vol. 30, no. 4, 518-526. Ron. Wallace offers a different scenario to explain the development of language. He suggests that the breakaway hominids found themselves in the new drier environment and that scavenging was accompanied by a return to sites where stone tools were used for butchering. Thus their spatial sense became more highly developed and this was located neurologically in the hippocampus. He goes on to suggest that there are strong analogies between the mental processes involved in this mental processing of spatial problems and the Chomskian deep-structure processes such as tracing (inserting a place-holder when a linguistic transformation is made) and embedding, where a sentence is built up from subordinate clauses. Wallace's suggestion relates to complicated language structures like the ability to transform a sentence from active to passive. The idea of thing using thought and the subject-verb-object structure is analogous, but plainly relates to a more basic level of language formation. Furthermore, thing using refers to activities before the use of stone.

43Oldfield, R. C., (1969). Handedness in Musicians. British Journal of Psychology. 90,91-9. Quoted by K. A. Flowers in article 'Handedness', Companion to the Mind, ed. R. L. Gregory, Oxford. 1987. '"Allman, J. M. (1987) in article 'Evolution of Brain in Primates', Companion to the Mind, ed. Gregory, Oxford.

45This outline hypothesis does not aim to give a complete review of recent work in the field of human origins.For that, the collection of articles in Tools Language and Cognition in Human Evolution (see note 13), forms a good introductory sample. It contains useful accounts of many of the approaches to the dialogue on human origins, including tool-using and language in chimps and monkeys and the growth of cognition and skills inhuman infants. As a stimulating introduction to the state of linguistics and the idea of a wired in grammar, the reader may find Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct, Morrow 1994, or Ray Jackendoff, Patterns in the Mind, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993. Nowhere, however, so far as I am aware, is the idea put forward explicitlythat 'thing using', distinguished from the much later stone-tool making, may be the primary activity leading to bipedalism, brain growth and the neural basis which would later accommodate language.

46The high proportion of the motor areas of the brain devoted to the hands is clearly illustrated by the well known homunculus diagram. See A. Leroi Gourhan Le Geste et La Parole (1964) (vol. 1 page 120), or page 82 in the English translation, Gesture and Speech, MIT Press 1993.

47 Allan Walker & Pat Shipman (1996). The Wisdom of Bones. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. The authors argue strongly that the Nariokotome boy fossil (homo erectus) could not speak; and they point out that Cavalli Sforza's arguments suggest that even Neanderthal lacked language. If speech came about so late, the importance of tool using in mental development becomes even clearer, pp 210-223.

48C Daryl Forde (1934): Habitat, Economy and Society. Methuen.

49Evans, F. T. (1982), 'Wood since the Industrial Revolution: a strategic Retreat?', History of Technology, Vol. 7, pp. 37-55.

50English is imprecise in its ability to state exactly when we are talking about applied scientific knowledge (technology?), its systematic application (technique?), the experience of a craftsman (skill?). See Ingold, p.

433 'Tool-use, sociality and Intelligence', in Gibson and Ingold supra. Also see Jacques Ellul (1964), The Technological Society for a philosophical view of the stifling of creativity by technique.

"Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts and Manufactures, ed. C. Tomlinson. Plate 'Bishopp's Rotary Steam Engine or Disc Engine, (circa 1853.)

52Eugene S. Ferguson (1992): Engineering and the Mind's Eye. MIT Press. Ferguson argues that good engineering is a matter of intuition and non-verbal thinking.

53The model is based on H.C.Fleeming Jenkin' s work. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edition, 4,1876: article 'Bridges' 308.

54Yao Tsu Li, D G Jansson, E G Cravalho (1981). Technological Innovation in Education and Industry. Van Nostrand.

"Evans, F. T. (1987), 'Designing and Making exhibits', in Stephen Pizzey, ed. Interactive Science and Technology Centres, Science Projects Publishing, pp. 182-188

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